Detail of Battistero Pisa
History,  Pisa

Who paid for the Leaning Tower of Pisa

Everybody knows the Leaning Tower of Pisa, endlessly about to topple. The famous tower is in Pisa, Tuscany, a city that now hosts the region’s main airport, but was once the capital of a powerful sea-faring Republic.

So how did the Tower get built? And where did the money come from? To answer these questions, we’ll have to dip into some history:


A brief history of Pisa

Pisa has a proud history, and was founded in a strategic position by the Etruscans. The advantages of its protected position on the coast saved it from the worst damage after the fall of the Roman empire. It become a popular port, with connections to trade routes north-east to Bologna and south-east to Volterra and Siena.

Flag of the Republic of PisaPisa developed into a commercial and military powerhouse on the Mediterranean. The Pisan flag with its cross became a recognised and feared presence on the seas, as the Pisan navy won a series of battles against the Saracens.


Looting Palermo

As the Pisan sea-explorers (some might call them pirates) grew in ambition they were told of the riches available in the Arab-controlled island of Sicily. In 1063 an expedition was mounted to the city of Palermo. Palermo is on the western tip of Sicily, and had been controlled by the Arabs for the last 2 centuries. It was a fantastically wealthy and cultured city.

In 1063 the Pisan raiders caught the inhabitants unawares and they fled, leaving the invaders to loot the city. The Pisans loaded their ships up with a fabulous amount of marble, gold and precious jewels.

Cappella Palatina | Palermo
The Cappella Palatina in Palermo. Photo by Di CarlesVA – Opera propria, CC BY-SA 3.0,


Pisa was startled by the sheer amount of loot that was brought back to the city. In this heavily religious period it was felt that spending at least a proportion of this unexpected windfall on God’s work would be wise.

In 1064 work was started on the main cathedral of the city. The Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta was built with merely a tenth of the riches taken in Palermo. The marbles looted from the city were also re-used in parts of the cathedral. If you look around the building, particularly around the back, closest to the tower, you can see fragments of carved writing in the blocks used on the building!

The Cathedral was expanded and improved over the years and in 1173 work was started on a bell-tower fine enough for such a glorious and important Cathedral.

Roman fragments in Pisa Cathedral

Trading Nation

Pisa gained further power when it joined the crusades in 1099. By the early 12th century it had opened commercial bases in Siria, Lebanon and in Palestine (military power and commercial interests were then, as now, closely related).

Pisa was now acting as an independent republic, with strong relationships and outposts all around the mediterranean. The alliance with the Byzantines (the Eastern arm of the roman empire) meant that Constantinople had a Pisan quarter, with over a 1000 inhabitants based there.

Throughout all this period of expansion the city continued to expand and improve their cathedral.  It was decided that such a splendid building needed a bell-tower. In 1173 work was started on a bell-tower fine enough for such a glorious and important Cathedral.

The Tower of Pisa

As a coastal city, Pisan builders were used to ensuring foundations were solid. To do this they would lay the foundations and then leave them for a year to settle. Clearly this time something went wrong. By the time the builders had reached the first floor the lean was starting to be visible.

Works were stopped at the third floor for over a hundred years. In 1566 Vasari, writing about the tower’s troubled beginnings, blamed the architect, Bonanno Pisano, for not knowing how to make solid foundations.

Works were started again in 1275 with a new architect, Giovanni di Simone. In an effort to correct the lean he built the next few floors angled in the opposite direction. As any engineer will tell you, this made the problem worse.

Nevertheless the works carried on and the tower was completed in the middle of the 14th century, in 1372. Meanwhile, the fortunes of the city had been changing.

Bendy Tower Drawing

Decline and treason

By the end of the 13th century and during the 14th the power of the city suffered a series of blows, including two large defeats. One at sea and one on land, to their enemies the Florentines. The coup-de-grace came in 1406 when Giovanni Gambacorta, in charge of the city, accepted a payment of 50,000 Florins to betray the city to the Florentine army.

Pisa’s power waned rapidly but the tower still stands. It owes it’s existence to a piratical raid that went extraordinarily well, and it’s fame to badly constructed foundations, and it continues to delight visitors today. See this page For information on buying tickets to visit the Tower of Pisa.

To find a holiday villa close to Pisa, see our page of Villas close to Pisa and Lucca.

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